Monday, December 11, 2006

Woman prepares to fight for her chickens

Woman prepares to fight for her chickens: Kent resident will speak to City Council about ban on poultry in small yards

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By Bruce Rommel
Journal Reporter

KENT — If people can have a kennel in the backyard and one or two big barking dogs, what's wrong with having a chicken coop and keeping a few hens?

That's one of the questions Tami Jayne Jackson has for the Kent City Council.

Jackson plans to be at Tuesday night's meeting, asking council members to consider changing the ordinance that bans livestock, poultry or fowl unless you have an extra-large home lot.

"Chickens don't take up that much space," said Jackson, whose six hens scratch around an enclosed pen in the backyard of her East Hill home.

So far, she's won support from City Council President Deborah Ranniger, who notes that even in urban Seattle, people may legally keep chickens or rabbits in small backyards.

"If Seattle can do that, I don't know why Kent can't," Ranniger said.

The councilwoman said she wants to ask the city's planning staff to review the ordinance and come up with some options for review.

"I think there's a lot of interest in keeping chickens or rabbits," said Ranniger, who had a pet rabbit in the yard when her children were little.

Council members are scheduled to vote Tuesday on a list of land-use issues to be considered next year. Jackson wants codes involving animals added to the list.

She and her husband, Doug Grimes, have been notified by city code enforcement officers that the hens at their home at Southeast 283rd Street and 144th Avenue Southeast are in violation of codes.

They could be fined up to $500 per day by a hearing examiner as long as the chickens remain. But a code enforcement officer said the city isn't taking any action until the City Council decides whether to review the issue.

Some cities allow poultry in smaller yards, while Kent requires a yard of 20,000 square feet or larger to keep poultry or livestock.

Jackson's yard is about 12,000 square feet.

Seattle allows up to three chickens in any backyard. Angelina Shell of Seattle Tilth, an organization that promotes organic gardening, said "hundreds of people" in Seattle have urban chickens.

"A lot of yards in Seattle are about 3,000 square feet," Shell said.

Jackson keeps hens for the fresh eggs and composts straw and manure from their pen for the garden.

"I don't want roosters because they can crow all day and annoy the neighbors," she said.

Keeping chickens at home.

Thursday, November 16, 2006

Not All Sausages Are Born Equal It Seems!

Sausage factory

What's the difference between top-of-the range and economy? Is it just
ingredients or are the animals treated differently, too? Felicity Lawrence

Saturday May 10, 2003

All pigs are equal but some pigs are more equal than others, especially by
the time they have been turned into sausages. In fact the gulf between the
toothpaste tubes of flavoured pink fat that pass for economy sausages and
the best made bangers could not be wider. Yet in the Orwellian world of food
regulation and labelling it can be hard to tell them apart. Mass produced,
dependent on the industrialisation of livestock, the origin of its
ingredients frequently unidentifiable and debased, the cheap sausage is a
classic product of our system of 21st century food production.
Last year we consumed 1.7bn meals of sausages at home, according to market
analyst Taylor Nelson Sofres, and our appetite for them is expanding. Many
more were sold by caterers.

Until a few years ago manufacturers put all sorts of unmentionables into
their sausages. Diaphragms and spleens, tails and lips all counted as meat.
But since the trauma of BSE there have been much tighter restrictions on
which parts can be used for human consumption and processors have moved on.
The industry is now polarised between those leading a revival in top-of-the
range sausages (made with what most people would recognise as meat for those
who can afford around £3 a pound) and those operating at what producers
refer to as "the arse end" of the sector where sausages sell for 50-55p a
pound or for even less to caterers. Those who most need the best - growing
children, the elderly, those in hospital - nearly always eat the worst.

The secret of the successful "economy" sausage these days lies not so much
in strange offals but in fat and protein engineering. Pig rind is an
essential ingredient in the protein engineer's toolbox. Frozen, imported,
chopped to a slurry and soaked with hot water, it produces a bargain
blancmange which can make up 30-35% of the sausage and still be called meat.
Manufacturers' handbooks recommend rind emulsion because its high protein
content boosts the nitrogen counts which are the basis for tests to
determine the meat content of products.

The cutting edge now, however, is in fat technology. Fat is seriously cheap
and with the help of additives you can make it eat with a bit of chew, just
like meat. You can buy thick rectangular slabs of pork back fat for about
50p a kilo to make your economy sausage. But if you want to cut costs even
further, the cheapest stuff on the market is something called flare fat.
This is the highly saturated fat that collects around the vital organs of
the pig such as the kidneys. It was traditionally rendered into lard because
you couldn't put it into sausages without it running straight back out again
when they were cooked. It also clogs up your arteries. But now food
scientisits are developing ways to make it hard so it doesn't ooze out.

You might mix your fat with what people in the trade call the posh man's
MRM. Mechanically recovered meat has to be declared on the label and
shoppers have become increasingly suspicious of it. So, instead,
manufacturers have developed the LIMA machine. Unlike an MRM processor,
which crushes the carcass after the main muscle meat has been removed, a
LIMA machine can debone the last scraps of meat from a carcass by pushing it
through a stainless steel sieve at a lower pressure. Splinters of bone will
give it a higher calcium content than muscle meat in tests but the hard
bones are left behind and it doesn't have to be declared on the label.

For a bit of economy texture you would probably also add pork cheek or jowl.
Sausages were, after all, invented to use the offcuts of animals. The jowl
is the bit of the pig from the earhole to the end of the snout, which is cut
off, deboned, skinned and block frozen. But while many manufacturers use
jowls, some worry about including them. They contain the pituitary glands
and therefore tend to be where drug residues or disease are concentrated.
"Put it this way, you wouldn't knowingly fry them for breakfast," one
explained. Because it has been in direct contact with the animal's food, the
butchered jowl tends to have high microbiological counts and degenerates at
twice the speed of the rest of the carcass.

Add plenty of water, rusk (sometimes up to 30%), sugar in the form of
dextrose to make them go brown when cooked, flavourings and colourings to
mask the absence of anything we would recognise as meat, phosphates and soya
to bind the water and fat in, and you have the perfect recipe for big

Here is a recipe for a school sausage, given to us by a manufacturer who
prefers to remain anonymous. It is for what he described as a "pork product"
made "down to a price" to win a local authority contract. The sausage
contents: 50% "meat", of which 30% is pork fat with a bit of jowl, and 20%
mechanically recovered chicken meat, 17% water, 30% rusk and soya, soya
concentrate, hyrolysed protein, modified flour, dried onion, sugar,
dextrose, phosphates, preservative E221 sodium sulphite, flavour enhancer,
spices, garlic flavouring, antioxidant E300 (ascorbic acid), colouring E128
(red 2G). Casings: made from collagen from cow hide.

Bernard Hoggarth is a sausage manufacturer at the top end of the market and
he can't quite make sense of it. "We feed our pigs the best possible
wheatgerm, the best milk, the best soya. Yet people feed their children
rubbish. Funny, isn't it?" Hoggarth's business, Cranswick gourmet sausage
company, supplies Sainsbury's with its Taste the Difference range of
sausages, Prince Charles with his Duchy Originals, and Waitrose, Safeway and
Morrison's through a sister company, Lazenby. The wheatgerm for fattening
his pigs is the vitamin-rich, highly nutritious casing of the wheat which is
stripped out and discarded when wheat is milled to white flour - to make
white sliced bread, say. Cranswick sausages cost just under £3 a pound
because they use real ingredients. Prime shoulder and belly pork are mixed
with fresh herbs, delivered daily, or real wine, garlic and olive oil. The
store room in Hoggarth's Hull-based factory is packed with the sort of slabs
of meat, oils and green leaves most cooks would be happy to have in their

The food standards agency has proposed new rules to require clearer
labelling of meat content, so that added fat, offal, gristle and rind would
have to be separately identified and shoppers could tell more easily what
they are getting. The move has been welcomed by consumer groups but they are
also worried. The proposals will lower the legal minimum meat content, so
that pork sausages would only have to contain 42% meat as newly defined.
Manufacturers will no longer have to declare the amount of water they have
added either, which "gives them an opportunity for fraud and debasement,"
according to Shropshire trading standards expert, David Walker.

But it is not just in the quality of the ingredients that the difference
between the Cranswick sausages and the economy version is evident. Their
provenance encapsulates the gap between food that is produced with concern
for animal welfare and environmental impact and that which is not. All the
meat Cranswick uses comes from British outdoor reared pigs which have mostly
been fed by its own feedmills and have been slaughtered in its own abattoirs
so that quality can be controlled right down the line.

Not all swine do so well. Some are indeed more equal than others. Last
summer Dutch and Belgian pigs, many of which would have ended up being
imported in to the UK for manufacturing in to products such as sausages, had
particular cause for complaint.

They were found to have been illegally fed waste from the production of
hormone replacement therapy pills for postmenopausal women.

Residues of medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA), a synthetic hormone, found
in the pigs were traced back to Wyeth, an American owned pharmaceutical
factory in Ireland. MPA is banned from vetinerary use in Europe but is used
in the USA and Australia as a growth-promoting hormone to make livestock put
on weight faster.

A Dublin-based waste management company Cara had been collecting the water
used in the production of sugar-coated HRT pills from the Wyeth factory and
shipping it to a company called Bioland on the Dutch /Belgian border. There
it was converted into glucose syrup to be mixed into pig feed. Nearly 100
Dutch feed manufacturers used the syrup and exported it throughout Europe.
Dutch pig farms were closed down while their animals were tested and
thousands of pigs were slaughtered. Wyeth and Cara both deny responsibility.
Bioland is now bankrupt and its owners have been charged with breaches of
food safety legislation. Belgian authorities are still investigating how
widespread the use of illegal hormones in pig production is. Although the
effects on humans of eating pork contaminated with MPA are thought to be
short-lived, the scandal followed hot on the heels of others about animal
feed contaminated with cancer-causing dioxins, and did nothing, post-BSE, to
dispel the impression that Europe's meat industry is the dustbin of its food

A short and fully traceable supply chain is one of the reasons British
consumers, when asked, say they prefer British meat, and supermarkets say
they support British farmers. Yet the UK pig industry is dying on its feet.
Four years ago the British herd numbered 800,000 breeding sows. Now there
are barely 500,000. About 2,000 pig farmers have gone out of business in
that period and many predict the end of pork production in this country.

Although there were government subsidies in the 1960s to encourage
intensification and greater productivity, pig farmers have received almost
no subsidies from the EU. The trend in the UK in the last decade has instead
been to improve welfare, in response to apparent public demand. British
farmers, and legislation, are currently ahead of European competitors on
standards. But the strength of the pound against the euro has meant that
they have been heavily squeezed, and although many people, including
retailers, say they want happy pigs they don't put their money where their
mouths are. "All supermarkets take it as accepted that they will pay the
lowest price on the day. There is no other mechanism for them. Buyers cannot
buck the trend," Digby Scott, editor of Pig World, says.

The beginning of the decline can be traced back to BSE. The UK banned meat
and bonemeal in animal feed in 1996, so instead of making a bit of money
from selling the parts of the pig not suitable for human consumption,
farmers had to pay to dispose of them. This so called BSE tax was calculated
by the meat and livestock commission to be costing British pig farmers £5.26
per pig. In the rest of Europe they continued to use meat and bonemeal from
animals until 2000, when a ban was introduced. EU farmers have until 2005 to
implement it however. Outside the EU it is still legal, despite evidence of
BSE in Continental herds.

Mark Hayward is a pig farmer in Wickham Market in Suffolk. Like most British
farmers these days he is very angry. He is not above joining a convoy of
other farmers to blockade supermarket distribution centres when he hears
that they are importing Dutch pork while claiming to buy to British

He invested heavily in converting his pig farm from intensive production to
Freedom Foods standards a couple of years ago. His sows now farrow outdoors
and his piglets are fattened in outdoor straw pens. Out in the fresh air
rather than crowded 2,000 to a shed, they are less susceptible to the
respiratory diseases which plague intensive units and so he doesn't have to
use the routine antibiotics others do. Nor does he need to practise tail
docking, a routine mutilation made necessary when pigs kept in barren and
overcrowded conditions bite each other.

But responding to animal welfare campaigners' pressure has cost British
farmers their competitive edge, according to Hayward. Times are hard and he
is now getting rid of a large part of his herd of pigs in the hope of

To take an example, the sow stall was banned in the UK in 1990 and had to be
phased out by 1999, yet it will still be allowed in the rest of the EU until
2013. A sow stall is a crate with bars into which a pregnant sow weighing
300kg is pushed to remain for its breeding life. She can stand up and lie
down but otherwise not move, having only six inches in front of her and six
inches behind. Stalls are very efficient - a farmer can squeeze 50 sows into
the space he or she now needs for 10 animals, and feed and water them
easily, but they are immensely distressing to the pigs, according to Peter
Stevenson of Compassion in World Farming. Not only are intensive systems
cruel, but they make herds vulnerable to the rapid spread of devastating
diseases such as foot and mouth and swine fever. But abolishing them costs
money, which is one of the reasons British farmers' pork is more expensive.

Elsewhere in East Anglia, a pig farmer agreed to take us into one of his
intensive pig units, on the condition of anonymity. Walking down the
corridor of Stalag 13, as he cheerfully called it, brushing under the filth
hanging from the low ceilings and holding our noses against the stench of
ammonia, we peered through inspection hatches into darkened pens where pigs
were crowded on to slatted floors. The slats cause bruising and foot
injuries, the pigs are bred to grow so fast and large they frequently suffer
from joint and leg problems, and one in 10 births has to be assisted because
confined sows cannot exercise their uterine muscles.

The smell is a reminder of the environmental problems caused by this sort of
farming. Pigs which are intensively fed grain produce shit high in nitrates
and phosphates. In small quantities and spread over an adequate area of land
it is fertilising. But in the large quantities excreted by intensive pig
farms, it is highly polluting.

But as Bernard Hoggarth says, "you gets what you pays for"

Keeping Chickens At Home

Monday, November 13, 2006

Council OK with chickens in city

Associated Press

BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- A city councilman drew guffaws and cackles by striding into the council chambers in a yellow chicken costume moments before the council discussed an ordinance that would allow residents to keep chickens within city limits.

Councilman Steve Volan's chicken suit led to a string of jokes before the serious business of chicken-keeping got under way Wednesday evening.

During the discussion, 21 audience members spoke in favor of allowing city residents to raise egg-laying chickens, and four spoke against it.

Volan joined the 5-1 council majority in voting to recommend the ordinance for final approval Wednesday. Three council members abstained from voting.

Lucille Bertuccio, president of the Center for Sustainable Living, said that when people grow their own food and raise their own chickens, they actually contribute to public health.
"When you buy eggs from factory farms, they contain antibiotics, pesticides, hormones. You should not be eating those eggs," Bertuccio said.

Opponents of chicken-keeping said they fear that neighbors with chickens would affect property values and threaten the public health.

"Poultry in city limits is not a good idea," said Bob Schmidt of the Monroe County Health Department, citing risks of salmonella contamination and illnesses.

The provision would charge residents a $25 fee for a chicken-keeping permit and restrict the number of chickens per coop to five, with one coop per property owner.

Friday, November 03, 2006

**VIDEO** Chicks Hatching In Incubator

Here's a cool video of a chick actually hatching out from his shell in an incubator. You cannot believe how hard it is to resist helping them get out.


Friday, October 20, 2006

Chicken Rearing 101 - How Not to Raise Chickens

Chick: A hatchling
Capon: A castrated male used for meat. (How much could that yield?)
Pullet: A female chicken under one year old.
Hen: A female chicken over one year of age
Rooster: A male chicken over one year of age.

Raising Chickens for the first time can be intimidating. When I first called the Feed Shop, I was trying to sound like a pro. I asked, “Do you sell pullets?” “Yes”, the man replied. “Are they all females?” It’s been an uphill battle ever since.

Pullet parenthood is an much of an adventure as child rearing, only with more feces per pound of body weight. However, I’ve been reading quite a bit on poultry matters. (Yes, my coolness just turned over in its grave.) So if I am correct and I am quite certain I am not, here is how chicken rearin’ goes.

Go to your local feed store and purchase $10.00 worth of chicks and $50 worth of food and supplies. Don’t forget the water dispensers. Buying the metal ones, never plastic is always advised. I have yet to see a metal one.

Next, place the chicks somewhere sheltered, like a bedroom closet. Toss in some highly flammable straw or wood shavings and promptly dangle a glowing heat lamp just above them. Note to self: Update homeowner’s policy.

For the next several weeks feed them 3 lbs of food per day and remove 4 lbs of sh*t per day from the closet. Despite all logic the birds get bigger. As the adult feathers grow in be sure to clip one of their wings. That is one per bird, not just one wing total. If clipping is done late chicks will nest in your toilet. This is a bad thing.

Clipping can be accomplished by tossing your scissors and your body into the heaping mound of chicks, poop and straw. Grab a wiggling screeching bird from the bile pile. Restrain it with one hand. Stretch the wing out with your second hand. Clip off 50% of the wings outer ten feathers with your third hand.

As the birds grow adjust the heat light temperature down by one degree per day. No, this is not actually possible. That’s not my point. You start at 100 degrees for hatchlings then continue down by one degree per day until your bedroom is a minimum of 3 degrees cooler than the spring blizzard outside your window.

Once you have frozen your ear to your semi-cannibalistic down pillow and the chicks have grown their adult feathers, they can be moved outside to the coop. I estimate the initial closet rearing stage to have taken five years.

Before the move, experience the Joy of Wing Clipping one more time. Feather clipping never works the first time. No one knows why. Still, after all the hassle you probably don’t want them to fly the coop in under sixty seconds. Of course, if you’re like me, by this time you may be inclined to pack them each a lunch and leave a stack of Greyhound tickets by the open coop gate.

Regarding habitat construction: Hen houses and chicken coops are a competitive art form. There are a myriad of web sites showing off architectural designs from Chicken Chateaus to Bird Bordellos. The meticulous craftsmanship makes my own home look like – well – like a chicken coop.

Always fashionable, I went with a shabby chic motif for my coop. The nesting boxes are an eclectic mix of stolen milk crates affixed to the wall by anything in arms reach. As for the coop itself, there is a gift for tight chicken wire, which eludes me. Quite frankly, my first attempt at a coop looks like Dr. Seuss dropped a hit of acid, blasted some Jefferson Starship and rolled around on the wire with every Who in Whoville. I think I’ll keep it.

Inferior design aside, I ultimately learned a thing or two. The nesting boxes are supposed to be up off the ground. That is correct. For those of you keeping score you just spent two weeks cutting back the birds flight feathers only to hang their houses in the sky. It’s just sick.

Higher than the nest boxes, you are to build a roost. This is where the birds crap at night so they do not crap on your breakfast eggs. Of course the roost is usually OVER the nesting boxes, so whatever you do, don’t use those perforated plastic milk crates.

For young birds maintain a heat light in the hen house. Then on cooler nights an animal with a brain the size of an bulimic toe nail clipping will make the conscious decision to forgo your nest boxes, bypass the instinctual roost and leap into a tanning bed.

And finally there is the feed regime. I asked several experts and read up on feeding as well. Make sure to give your chickens, starter formula, mash, growth formula, start & grow, brood formula, grit, no grit, scraps, no scraps, goat placenta, nothing suggested on the internet, tetramyaicn, no antibiotics, medicated starter, non-medicated starter and never ever switch in-between.

I may not be Queen of the Coop yet, but I’m working on it. Though I am still a zoologist and I still know Birds 101. Here are two myths I can help with. First, you do not need a rooster to get eggs. Most folk, especially those who have never owned chickens, will advise you on chickens. Each will insist you need a rooster for a while to do his manly duties, then you can slip him in the pot. As appealing as this concept is, your pot is a separate issue.

Roosters are only needed to make fertile eggs. Hens are all that is needed to make breakfast eggs. Fertile eggs are just peachy if raising chicks was such a joy the first time you want to repeat the whole freakin’ process. In addition there is always the risk of breaking a fertilized egg open and finding a 50% formed chick fetus hitting your hot skillet. Yum! Years of therapy will follow.

To keep it straight in your mind consider this: You are going about your life. Suddenly massive balls of calcium start stacking up inside your abdomen. Are you going to hold on to them just because you have not had sex lately?

The second bird myth is totally unrelated so I thought I would mention it. Penguins occur in nature from the Equator on Southward. That is down to the Antarctica, not the Arctic! No, they do not hang out with Polar Bears who live in the Arctic. No, you did not see them when you worked in Alaska, in the Arctic. Those were puffins.

No, I am not sorry you look stupid to all those folks you told penguin tales to.
Yes, some penguin species even reside on the Galapagos Islands at the equator (Cold weather would kill them), not floating around on icebergs - and not in the Arctic! Yes, I realize my eggs are not all in one basket. Delusional, close-minded people who insist you need a rooster to fertilize your penguin eggs so polar bears won’t loose their food supply drove me crazy!

by: Nola L. Kelsey

Friday, August 04, 2006

Wild in the city?

Think you need land to live like a farmer? Think again.

By Joe Eaton

It's a fantasy for some city dwellers -- to someday move to a piece of land in the country, maybe buy a tractor, grow corn or raise animals. But as some Roanokers are proving, you don't need a large space to find your inner farmer.

David Dodson never meant to be a beekeeper. Thirteen years ago, the retired 78-year-old tractor-trailer driver took a few hives to deliver to a friend. The friend got sick, and the bees wound up in the back yard of Dodson's 11,000-square-foot lot in Northwest Roanoke. "I've been foolin' with bees since then," Dodson said on a recent morning as he searched through a hive for an underperforming queen bee.

Dodson has four hives in his back yard this year. Usually he has five, the maximum he can keep by law. There are benefits to keeping bees in the city over rural areas, Dodson said. There are more flowering plants and shrubs in the city for the bees to collect nectar from. Dodson sells honey from his home. This year, he expects he'll have 240 pounds from his backyard hives for sale. He sells for $4 a pint and $8 a quart.

Keeping bees isn't as much work as people think, Dodson said. He spends an hour a week inspecting the hives and then a few days in the fall extracting and bottling the honey.In the past, neighbors complained to the city when Dodson's bees swarmed their humming bird feeders. But an inspector found he was not breaking the law. Dodson said most of his neighbors don't mind the bees. They help pollinate their gardens.

The hardest thing about raising bees is getting stung, and Dodson doesn't mind that much. "It helps my arthritis," he said. "There are a lot of medicinal purposes around bees. A lot of it is folklore. A lot of it works."

Just eggs, for now. Joe and Jennifer Carnes own just over an acre in Northwest Roanoke. It's not huge, but for the Carneses who grew up in tight neighborhoods, it's a farm.

Soon after they moved to the house in 2005, they began filling it up. First came a garden, with tomatoes and cucumbers. Then, in April, Joe Carnes bought two hives of bees. Later that month the 27-year-old bought six Rhode Island Red chicks."This is just a wild feather that caught me," Joe Carnes said, adding that friends at the architectural firm where he works have been giving him a hard time about his farming.

They live in a coop he built from scrap wood and eat from an automatic feeder. He spends three hours, usually on the weekends, cleaning the coop and changing the straw. Next year, the Carneses plan to add at least one rooster and maybe a few ducks. They are nervous about what the neighbors will think of the rooster's morning crow. "I don't want to be a nuisance or anything, but it would be nice to repopulate," said Joe Carnes.

The Carneses will soon have fresh eggs and honey. They plan to give much of it away to friends and family. But they won't be eating fried chicken anytime soon. "We waited too long. My wife named each of them, which knocks the current six candidates out of the running," Joe Carnes said.

The yard farmer. At first glance, Rick Williams' back yard in the Williamson Road neighborhood looks like a suburban fantasy, complete with a swing set and an in-ground pool.But the pool no longer holds chlorinated water. In 2004, Williams turned it into a cistern to collect rain water for the yard he is turning into an urban farm. For Williams, a 51-year-old who serves on the city planning commission, grass is the enemy. His yard is now a jungle of vegetables, berry bushes and fruit trees. It is more than a common garden. Williams practices permaculture, a design-based philosophy of growing food naturally.

Williams uses no chemicals on his crops and is obsessed about promoting rich soil. His crops are not planted in neat rows. Butternut squash peek out from below blueberry bushes. Eight-foot tomato plants climb bamboo poles. For Williams, yard farming is an experiment in community building. He eats most of his produce, but he also sells some to neighbors. He hopes to start a system in which neighbors will buy into the garden each year and get fruits and vegetables in return.

He thinks his backyard farm can someday feed up to six families and make the neighborhood more of a community. His advice for those dreaming of moving to the country to farm is to look at their own yards. "Everyone in this city has land that is being used for nothing right now except to grow grass," he said.

Keeping chickens at home

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Tuesday, March 07, 2006

Keeping Chickens at Home - Latest UK Avian Flu News

UK sees no need to confine chickens over bird flu

7th March 2006

By Nigel Hunt

LONDON, Feb 20 (Reuters) - Britain sees no need yet to lock up chickens despite news that deadly bird flu has moved closer to its shores while the vaccination of poultry was "under review" on Monday.

British consumers also reacted calmly to the latest scare with sales of chicken remaining strong, retailers said.

France and Germany have imposed bans on farmers keeping poultry outdoors as an H5N1 strain of bird flu spreads across Europe. Last week the virus reached France, with an infected duck found dead near Lyon.

"If there is another case in France on a migratory route then we would have another look (at keeping chickens indoors)," a spokesman for Britain's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) said on Monday.

He added that the case in eastern France was not on a migratory route to Britain.

The spokesman said nine swans found dead in Britain had been tested for the deadly strain but results had been negative.

The H5N1 strain has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa and killed 93 people as well as millions of birds.

Freda Scott-Park, president of the British Veterinary Association, said the decision to continue to allow chickens to be kept outdoors had been taken after a long debate involving industry experts.

"We have to keep our reaction proportionate (to the threat). The trigger point (for imposing a ban) may well be if bird flu moves further west in France or if it arrives in this country," she said.


Virologist Nigel Dimmock of Warwick University saw practical problems in keeping the flock indoors, which meant the government needed to ensure it was absolutely necessary.

"It certainly would help against poultry picking up the virus from wild birds. The question is judging when it is necessary," he said.

Dimmock, who chaired an investigation into Britain's bird flu quarantine arrangements, backed the government strategy in tackling the threat.

"It is not possible to control the forces of nature entirely but I think everybody is on the ball," he said.

France and the Netherlands have been seeking permission from the European Union to vaccinate poultry against the virus and a spokesman for DEFRA said Britain's policy was "under review".

BVA president Scott-Park said there were benefits but the logistical challenges would be "enormous".

She said the British government was, however, seriously considering vaccinating zoo birds, a step that had been taken in other countries.

Dimmock said some vaccines might protect chickens but not necessarily end an infection.

"It is a kind of halfway house which could be the worst of all worlds," he said, adding the virus could then become endemic in British poultry and re-emerge among birds that had not been vaccinated.

The latest bird flu scare had no impact on sales of poultry in Britain, according to leading retailers Tesco and Sainsbury .

"Sales remain strong," a spokeswoman for Tesco said.

Keeping Chickens at Home

Monday, February 13, 2006

Keeping Chickens at Home - Spring in the air?

Keeping Chickens at Home - Spring in the air?

Keeping Chickens at Home - Spring Chicks

The Cock and the Drake are all "at it" with the ladies and with lighter mornings and evenings, it can only mean one thing - Spring is just starting to show it's face.

The hens are really laying again after a very quiet winter. In fact, they started about a month ago, but they are really popping them out now.

There are four things that I really love about keeping chickens;

[1] Putting your hand into the clean straw of a nesting box and taking hold of the smooth, warm, eggy pebble is best of all.

[2] That they taste - really properly taste of egg (It is amazing how shockingly little bought eggs seem to taste of anything ).

[3] Their quirky manner and prettiness against the grass of the orchard, which adds more colour at this time of year than any plant I can think off.

The manure is a useful addition to the compost heap, too. In short, they span the garden and kitchen as easily as carrots or the hazel trees (whose catkins are exceptionally vivid, and early this year, by the way).

The hens are not alone. All the birds are at it. The dawn chorus in February is not as loud or as air-fillingly broad as it is in April, but it is almost unbearably thrilling, starting as a thin reed of sound in the dark, which is gradually picked up by individual birds across the garden and fields until it weaves together into an hour of song.

You can probably download it for all I know and listen to it on your iPod as you hustle to work, with different titles for every day of the year, but it will no more be the real thing without the dark, cold air with that faintest promise of spring (yes, you can smell spring) and a slither of light on the horizon than a pack of supermarket factory eggs are the real thing.

The dusk chorus is spectacular at this time of year, too, building to a peak in about six weeks' time. It then dies away, although the dawn song continues well into summer. I often just stand in the garden at dusk at this time of year and let the sound wash around me. It is as proper a way to garden as anything else that I know.

Keeping Chickens at Home - Spring in the air?

Keeping Chickens at Home - Link Page

Keeping Chickens at Home - Link Page

  • Build Your Own Chicken House - Easy To Follow Plans

  • Get The Latest DEFRA Regulations On Keeping Chickens In The UK and Asian Bird Flu updates

  • Ascott Smallholder Supplies and Equipment.

  • Forsham Cottage Arks - High Quality Poultry & Waterfowl Housing.

  • PoultryOne's Guide to Raising Chickens - Free chicken articles.

  • Brilliant and very funny 'chicken' cartoons from Doug Savage - Check them out here.

  • Look here for your local agricultural merchants in the UK.

  • Poultry Page - Shows every breed of chicken imaginable. Well worth a look.

  • Find your nearest authorised UK Black Rock agent.

  • CIWF campaign for the improvement of intensively farmed animals.

  • Keeping Chickens at Home

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Pigs might swim

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Pigs Might Swim

    Pinky & Perky Take To The Water. Three-month-old piglet twins Pinky and Perky love to do a few lengths in owners Marjorie and Craig Walsh's pool at Lucies Farm in Collets Green near Worcester. The couple decided to let the pigs take a dip to keep fit and now Craig believes that the quirky rearing method is the best way to keep the herd lean and mean.He says: "The whole point is to keep them as healthy and as fit as possible and they do seem to get very bored when they haven't got something to do. We basically had to launch the first pig into the pool off the back of a mini trailer. There were six people on stand by to pull it out in case it sank and Marjorie was at the bottom of the pool in scuba gear as a last resort. The pig went straight to the bottom - and then suddenly popped up again. After that we couldn't stop it swimming and it was almost impossible to get it back out.”

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Saturday, January 28, 2006

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Building a Nest Box.

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Building a Nest Box.

    Keeping chickens at home in the garden. Building a nest box.

    Chickens must have somewhere dark and snug to lay their eggs.

    To build a nest box for your chickens is very simple. Build a box with wood, roughly 12"x12"x20"high, with a sloping roof to stop the chickens trying to roost on it and then forget to put a front and a back on it. Instead, put a piece of wood about 3" high on the bottom. With the front open, the chicken can easily pop in and out and with the back open, you can easily get at the eggs.

    Check out the picture of one I made earlier in true Blue Peter fashion as a guide. Make sure the nest box is always placed lower than the perches in the house as chickens will always try to roost on the highest point in their house. Place the nesting box at the back of the house, so you can easily collect the eggs when you open the back of the chicken house in the morning.

    Put some fresh straw in it and you're ready to go.

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Tuesday, January 17, 2006

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Some FAQ's

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Some FAQ's

    Q. "What does 'broody' mean?"

    A. Going "broody" just refers to the instinct a hen has to stop laying eggs every day and to start sitting on the ones she's already laid, so that in 21 days they will hatch into chicks (provided a rooster has been mating with the hen). Some chickens "go broody" all the time. They are often bantam breeds, such as Silkies, or mixed breeds. Most purebreds, like Rhode Island Reds, were themselves not hatched by a mother hen. They were hatched in an egg incubator in a hatchery somewhere. You see, if you want a chicken that lays a lot of eggs for eating, you don't want one that still has the instinct to stop laying eggs and sit on her eggs all the time. You want one that has had all the broody instincts bred out of her so she'll lay for you year-round. So farmers over the years have raised up what are known as utility breeds; chickens that don't go broody and that lay almost all year 'round.

    Q. "My chicks are growing fast. How can I tell which ones are hens and which are roosters?"

    A. If you bought "sexed" chickens, then most likely all your chickens are females. If you bought "straight run" chicks, then 50% will be males. Professional chicken sexors are employed by hatcheries and sexing chickens is difficult. When you see some of your chicks displaying "dominance behaviors" or other fighting type behavior, that won't tell you anything. All my hens, when they were chicks, would fight, spar, act dominant to the others. The best way is to wait until it is no longer a chick and almost full grown. You will start to see pointed sickle and saddle feathers on a male. Sickle feathers are the two long tail feathers, and saddle feathers are the feathers that grow on a rooster's back right on top of the rump. They will come to a point versus being rounded. Wait until you hear a crow before you get rid of a suspected rooster if you are a novice; that's what I still do.

    Q. "If my Rhode Island Red hen won't brood, what will make her set? Do they need a special laying feed to make them go broody?"

    A. If a hen doesn't have the instinct to sit on her eggs, there's nothing you can do. She doesn't have the mothering instinct. Special foods won't help, nor will keeping her confined with her eggs or bringing in a rooster. You might be thinking of "layer pellets," which is simply food fed to hens that have started to lay eggs and hence need extra calcium and other nutrients to make strong shells. So leaving the eggs in the nest in hopes she'll sit on them is kind of wasting good eating eggs.

    Q. "How often will a grown hen lay eggs? How many a day? What's the physiological reason that a chicken lays an egg?"

    A. I do get a lot of emails asking me about the basic biology of chickens such as this. A "production" breed, or chickens that have been bred over the decades to really crank out the eggs might lay you an egg every 24-36 hours, and keep that up almost year 'round. That would be a good production breed. Secondly, hens don't need a rooster around at all to lay their maximum number of eggs. One article which answers some basic chicken biology questions is here. In addition, here is a picture that shows the internal sex organs of most birds, including chickens. You can see that the external genitalia are the same in males and females. This external part is called the cloacae. ("klo-AY-kuh.") The cloacae is the common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals discharge in birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes. That is to say, chickens poop, pee, lay eggs, and mate all via the same hole.

    Q. "We'll probably get a couple of chickens now, and then maybe another later. Is that okay?"

    A. That's the one thing that's hard to do with chickens: Introduce a new one into a pen of other chickens. The new one gets picked on. There are tricks you can do to get around actual bloodshed, however. You can introduce even numbers of birds, like put five new chickens in with five original chickens. Or you can toss up the ages and ratios: Put in a dozen youngsters in with just three adults, for example, and the adults will be overwhelmed. Another thing to do is to let the original chickens chase the new ones around, but provide hiding places for the new ones. Put a second feeder and a second waterer at the opposite end of the chicken pen or coop, so the new chickens can always access food and water. Also, I'll refer you to a good link: Scroll down to the very last paragraph on that page for another technique on introducing new birds to a flock.

    Q. "I am new at keeping chickens. I got them when they where born. Well, 2 of them have tried to attack me. I let them roam free and today one of them chased me into the house. I am afraid to go into my backyard. Have you ever heard of this?"

    A. You really should keep your chickens in a pen of some kind. I would never let my chickens scare me out of my own yard. Take back the streets! I mean yard. Get those darned chickens in a pen where they belong. It will also keep them safer. If you let your chickens roam free, it is my personal opinion and experience that it's just a matter of time before they are harmed by predators.

    Q. "What about parasites on or in my chickens? Do I have to deal with all that?"

    A. You should dust your chickens every few months with an all-purpose pesticide dust, such as Sevin dust, or Hi-Yield Livestock & Garden dust. You can find canisters or bags of this stuff at any Agricultural Merchants. How I like to "dust" my chickens is to have a big shallow drawer or something, put sand or clean dirt in it, and mix a couple of cups of the pesticide dust in with it. Chickens love to take dust baths and will be dusting themselves in no time. Just leave the dusting bin in their run for a week or so. Also, chickens sometimes get worms. Just like puppies and kittens. Just for safety's sake, I like to worm my flock every 4-6 months. Buy a small bottle of chicken wormer from your local feed store, or you can order from the 'net, too. It simply involves adding some liquid medicine to their drinking water. Carefully follow the directions on the bottle.

    Q. "What is coccidiosis?"

    A. Coccidiosis (pronounced, “cock-sid-ee-O-sis”) is a common chicken disease. Poultry raised in crowded or unsanitary conditions (conditions that permit the build-up of a lot of oocysts in the environment) are at greatest risk of becoming infected. Wet areas around water fountains are a source of infection. Oocysts remain viable in litter for many months. In this way they can contaminate a farm from year to year. Oocysts are killed by freezing, extreme dryness and high temperatures. Several factors influence the severity of infection. Some of these are: An increase in the number of oocysts eaten causes an increase in the severity of the disease. Old birds are generally immune as a result of prior infection. Coccidiosis generally occurs more frequently during warmer weather (May to September). The most easily recognized clinical sign of severe coccidiosis is the presence of bloody droppings. Chickens droop, stop feeding, huddle together and by the fourth day blood begins to appear in the droppings. The greatest amount of blood appears by day five or six and by the eighth or ninth day the bird is either dead or on the way to recovery. Keep chicks, feed and water away from droppings as much as possible. Place water vessels on wire frames to eliminate a concentration of wet droppings, in which the chicks can walk to pick up or spread the disease. Keep litter dry and stirred frequently. Remove wet spots and replace with dry litter. Avoid overcrowding. If coccidiosis does break out, start treatment immediately. Amprolium (the stuff they put in medicated chick feed) or one of the sulpha-based drugs (such as Sulmet, which you can get at the feed store) is usually recommended. Follow directions on bottle to the letter.

    Q. "Do your chicken eggs have little red spots in them?"

    A. The blood spot that many people mistakenly take as a mark of a fertilized egg is actually blood from the hen. Not all eggs will have them. It happens when the hen is creating the egg in her body and a tiny blood vessel somewhere along the process ruptures and a tiny bit of chicken blood gets mixed into the formation process. People have long thought all sorts of erroneous things about chicken eggs: That fertilized ones are healthier, that free-range eggs are so much better for you, that organic ones have less cholesterol, that the blood spot is a mark of fertilization, etc.

    Q. "When you say you can raise chickens in the city, you really mean in the suburbs, right? One can't raise chickens in a high rise apartment."

    A. I raised a hen from a baby chick when I lived in an apartment once. It was a bantam breed and so only grew as large as a parrot, which people keep as pets all the time, and chickens can live outside. Except unlike a parrot, my species of bird would eat my kitchen scraps and give me eggs. The only thing I would do differently is raise two chicks at a minimum, as one chick gets very, very lonely. My apartment had a patio, and I don't see why a person couldn't modify a chicken tractor design to work for a patio. I personally think it's not too nice to keep a dog cooped up in an apartment, and people do that all the time. It might be challenging, but why couldn't city folks keep pets that are super practical and give them fresh eggs? Couldn't you collect the chicken droppings and put them in your planters on your patio where you are growing some tomatoes or flowers?

    Q. "I prefer organic versus store-bought eggs and I have read all kind of hen house horror stories, so I would prefer to buy my family's eggs from chickens which don't spend their lives caged up in misery and pumped full of antibiotics and hormones."

    A. It may not be supporting my own cause, but I am compelled to say: The only real difference you will be getting with backyard eggs is that they will be fresher, and a lot of people like that. They can have more brightly colored yolks. Otherwise they are essentially the same as store-bought eggs. I don't really like the idea of battery hens standing on wire the whole year or so they use them, but it might be a necessary evil. But even backyard hens have to live in a pen, because even city folks have raccoons, dogs and hawks to contend with. If I let my chickens roam the yard, they would be eaten in no time. But you're right; backyard hens definitely are not on wire floors and are able to scratch about happily in the straw or dirt, eat grass and food scraps, fly up to perches, lay in the sun, take dust baths, fight and/or preen each other, interact with each other, etc. I know egg industry hens are sometimes fed feed with antibiotics in it, but I've never heard of hens being given hormones.

    Q. "Isn't it true that some free-range, organic, vegetarian hens lay eggs with 35% less cholesterol than regular eggs?"

    A. It might indeed be true that the new "Omega 3" eggs developed at the University of Nevada can have up to 19% less cholesterol than regular eggs. However, it's the folks who are producing them who are reporting this; not an independent researcher. says Omega 3 eggs "do not have any less cholesterol but they have more omega 3 fatty acids." also says, "Despite these differences, all eggs have approximately the same amount of protein, total fat and cholesterol." These engineered eggs don't claim to be "organic" eggs. They are not free-range eggs. They just claim to have more Omega 3 fatty acids. What jumps out at me is that they are doing a lot of work (genetic selection, restricted feed, etc.) to make a relatively little change in eggs. The hens are still in cages and the hens are fed a fairly unnatural diet. So to me the eggs might be slightly healthier but are not particularly "natural." I would say it would be up to each individual consumer to decide which is their own personal lesser of two evils. Some folks who have high cholesterol might be grateful for any small change in an egg; others will still consider these to be battery hens that are caged and the resulting eggs are not free-range nor organically produced. Also, you might find some farms that make fairly amazing claims about their eggs. Buyer beware of such claims.

    Q. No matter what I put my chicken's water in, they get dirt in it! Do you have any tricks for keeping their water supply unfouled?

    A. They sell automatic watering systems, like the one seen here. But they require you to have them always hooked up to a water source, and most back yard poultry keepers don't get that complicated. I've used the plastic one gallon gravity feed ones (you have to refill them often), the 5 gallon plastic Dura Founts (two of them leaked/cracked on me), a plain plastic shoebox but placed very high on some boards and bricks, and other methods. The problem I have with the galvanized gravity feed ones is that although they can hold a lot of water, the actual reservoir holds only about a cup of water, and it gets dirty fast. So the chickens, although using a five gallon waterer, only have access to the trough of a cup or so of dirty warm water. That bothers me every time I look at it. Currently I'm using a five gallon bucket. You must keep the water topped off or the chickens won't be able to reach the water easily. With gravity feed waterers, you have to go into the poopy chicken pen to remove it, open it, refill it, and then lug 5 gallons of water back into the chicken pen. The bucket can be filled from outside the pen by sticking the garden hose through the wire; no top to unscrew. The bucket water level is right near the head-level of a standard breed bird. The water surface is high enough to keep most scratched-up dirt out of it. The dirt that does land in the water settles down to the bottom of the bucket. It is heavy so if the birds fly onto it, it won't tip over like a smaller bucket.

    Q. "I gave my chickens a few worms. They loved those. Is it OK to do so?"

    A. You will find that chickens are better than pigs for eating anything. Get a pretty ceramic bowl or container (I use a kid's sand pail), set it next to your kitchen sink, and throw all your food scraps into it. This will become your "chicken bucket." Then feed these scraps to the chickens. Empty the container daily so as not to breed germs. Dump the "chicken bucket" of food scraps into an old metal cake pan or the like that you leave in the chicken run. This way the scraps are kept off the ground and droppings. You can then easily dispose of any food that the chickens didn't eat that was left in the cake pan. You will find that chickens hardly refuse anything. It gives them food variety, too, and you will feel like you are not wasting food but recycling it. Think you can't put scrambled eggs or cooked chicken meat into the chicken bucket? Think again; those are among their favorites. I used to put even raw meat scraps in, but I've read that raw meat can transmit toxoplasmosis to animals, including chickens, and I wouldn't want myself or my kids to then come in contact with contaminated chicken manure. This is especially important for pregnant women. Some chicken fanciers are wholly against feeding human food to chickens. I just don't understand how some leftover Cheerios, which are enriched with vitamins, or bread or pasta made with enriched flour could possibly be bad for chickens. One time a mouse made a nest under one of my chickens' nest boxes, and when we moved the box, about 7 baby mice went scampering. My hens ate those baby mice so fast you wouldn't believe it. Chickens are the ultimate omnivores. Oh, and chickens love fresh grass clippings; be sure to put your garden clippings into the chicken pen. (Earthworms and other bugs, actually, can be carriers of microscopic parasitic chicken worms. My personal solution is to administer worming medicine via their water every 6 months versus never letting them eat worms or bugs.)

    Q. "What kind of chicken food do I buy for my laying hens?"

    A. Very simple: One should always provide free-choice commercial chicken food. Chicks should be fed "chick starter" clear up until you get your first egg, then switch to "layer pellets." That's it. Cracked corn or scratch grains are not sufficient. A chicken fed on only "chicken scratch" will be malnourished and fat. Q. "I was watching my chickens and they are pecking the feathers off of each other a lot. Could feeding them straight barley for a long time make them pick?" A. Absolutely. Chickens have been bred from the wild jungle fowl. In the wild, chickens eat beetles, worms, mice, carrion, bugs, flies, seeds, grasses, etc. They are omnivores, which means they eat meat and vegetable matter. They are omnivores in much the same way we humans are omnivores. So feeding them plain barley for a long time would be just as if you ate plain barley for a long time. You would start having strong cravings for protein, vitamins and minerals. You would become malnourished. Your chickens are picking each other and eating the feathers for protein and other trace minerals. "Scratch grains," such as barley kernels and cracked corn, are just extra treats for chickens. They should never be their only food. You should always provide commercially prepared chicken food for your captive chickens. Always. It should be "free choice," too, which means a supply should always be available and should never run out. So go out today and buy an all purpose chicken feed like Triple Duty or Chicken Mash or Crumbles. If your chickens are all older and are egg layers, you can get away with feeding Layer Pellets, as it is nutritionally complete for laying hens. Don't feed this to chicks or chickens who haven't started laying yet. They need Chick Starter until you see your first egg. A 25kg bag of chicken feed costs about £6. Also, put grass clippings in your pen as often as you can, as this helps cut down on pecking because it gives them something to do and is very healthy for them, as regular chicken feed, although nutritionally complete, has no green leafy living matter in it. Also provide grit (small gravel rocks you buy at the feed store) for your chickens.

    Q. "What kind of bedding do you put in a hen house or chicken run?"

    A. I can only speak from my own experiences, and I've tried a number of things: Sand, pea gravel, wood shavings, straw, etc. The main thing is that you want something that promotes drainage. If you have a muddy chicken run, then it is more conducive to disease. Some people throw straw in their chicken tractor or run, and then when it gets layered with poop and moisture, they throw on another layer of straw. This works, except for eventually, you have to remove the dirty straw, and in my experience the layers become very matted and almost woven/cemented together so that even with a shovel it is hard to get up. So I would suggest using one of those compressed bales of wood shavings for about £5. A bale for three hens lasts a long time and make things look "petting zoo" cute. It also doesn't mat together quite as bad as straw, you can layer fresh wood shavings on top of old, and it absorbs standing water or mud which can harbor an excess of pathogens. If you have very well-draining soil in your coop, or live where it is dry and warm a lot, you can also use no litter; just bare earth. Just rake out the dried poop occasionally.

    Q. “Tell your site readers that chicken wire will not keep their chickens safe from dogs. We built a chicken Ark and still our dogs tore through the chicken wire and killed our two chickens.”

    A. I’m so sorry to hear that. I will mention again about the danger of dogs around chickens. Determined dogs might indeed be able tear lightweight chicken wire off of its framework. I will advise builders to use lots and lots of extra long staples when attaching the chicken wire to their hen houses. I will also suggest that if using an ark to house chickens, the safest way is to keep the pen inside a fully fenced yard. That way, no stray or roaming dogs can come into your yard. If you have your own dogs sharing your yard with your chickens, I must simply say that there is no real way to fully trust dogs around chickens. If you have dogs, an ark may not be appropriate for you. You would have to use something very dog-proof to keep your dogs away from your chickens. Also, if a dog can’t tear through the chicken wire, it still might be able to tip over a very lightweight ark. So if you are going to leave your dogs unattended around your chicken ark, I would suggest building one or else put some kind of heavy object such as an old tire on top of it.

    Q. "I've been told by several people that bantam hens have a very good disposition and are exceptionally easy to manage. In your experience are there any breeds that do better than others as pets?"

    A. I've tried a lot of breeds, and ultimately, they are all chickens. In my experience, how "pet-like" a chicken is is directly related to how much it was handled while it was growing up. It will be unafraid of humans if humans handled it a lot and hand-fed it, etc. Some chicken fanciers will tell you that some breeds are born friendlier than others. My personal opinion? It's dependent on how much human contact they had when growing up. Some breeds will *look* more pet like, because they are fluffier, or slower, or have shorter legs. Remember, they are birds. They are all flighty, unless you work against their nature and hand-rear them a lot. Get some baby chicks, brood them in your coat pockets, only hand feed them, etc., and your chickens will hang around you forever. But I don't have that kind of time, and I’d hate to think what my coat pockets would smell like. :)

    Q. "Would my chickens have the capability and the desire to fly out of our yard?"

    A. Oh Yes. The capability is there. I even keep particularly skittish hens’ wings trimmed so they can’t take off. No, chickens can’t really “fly,” but they can get over fences. If you trim the end feathers of ONE wing only, they will fly in an ark and not get anywhere. It doesn't hurt them a bit.

    Q. "I was wondering if the smell is very bad if we are good about keeping our chicken area really clean. It seems like it is not too bad as long as the area is kept clean. Is that correct?"

    A. Cleaner always equals less smelly. I think you have to let the poop accumulate for a LONG time before it gets really smelly. Also, a fresh dropping smells. A dried out dropping doesn't. Wet area equals smell, dry area equals no smell.

    Q. "Do you notice a rat problem starting up because of the chicken feed that is out? If so, what do you usually do to curb that problem?"

    A. I've noticed a few mice, but they've never got to the "problem" level at all. They come around looking for the kitchen scraps I feed my chickens. But then one time my hens ate a bunch of baby mice they found under their nest box. So there you go :) I also keep my chicken feed outside, but in a metal rubbish bin. I tried plastic; the mice chewed through it!

    Q. "What should be done for chickens in the Winter?

    A. Make sure the drinkers are changed daily as the water will probably have frozen. Choose hardy breeds like Black Rocks who have been bred to withstand colder weather. Keep the henhouse well bedded with fresh straw and make sure there are no drafts. I put an old door against the henhouse door to stop the wing blowing in through the entrance hatch. When its cold, have the run area sheltered from the wind. They will eat a little more in cold weather as they will be using more energy keeping warm.

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Some FAQ's

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Eggs and the city!

    Keeping chickens at home UK

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Eggs and the city

    By Christine Jeavans
    BBC News Online

    Urban dwellers across the land are being encouraged to get in touch with nature by keeping hens in their back gardens. But does it make sense - and what do the chickens think about it?

    With Tango... or is it Cha Cha?
    How practical is it to keep two hens in the small patch of green most townies have at their disposal? What about the foxes?

    Two days into my life as an urban hen wrangler and there's no doubt about it, I am being told off by a chicken.

    Every time I go into the garden her clucking takes on an accusatory tone and she approaches the end of the run and fixes me with a beady glare.

    It is evident that she wants to be let out to roam around the apparently thrilling habitat that is my garden but I have been told to keep her and her friend in the run for the first few days so they don't try to "home" to Oxfordshire.

    This feisty madam, whom I have named Tango, and her pal Cha Cha are my charges for the next few weeks.

    They are beautiful South American Araucana hens which lay pale blue eggs. And, as befits such funky chickens, they have eschewed a wood and wire coop for an eglu - an iMac-style bright plastic hen house complete with run, feeders and a sun/rain shade.

    The eglu: Lo-rise living for city chicks
    It has an "eggport" so humans can access the minimalist nestbox (urban hens don't do straw) and an easy-to-clean droppings tray - meaning for an extra green halo you can brush the guano straight into your compost bin.

    The eglu (£325 including two hens and feed) was dreamt up by four industrial design students as part of a final year project at the Royal College of Art. After graduating they decided to bring chicken-keeping to the urban masses.

    "We had a hunch that a lot of people wanted to keep hens but didn't know how," says Johannes Paul, 25, one of the inventors. "They think they need a massive garden and that there will be lots of mess and noise but that's not the case.


    Comb & wattles keep hen cool
    Crop stores food
    Grit in gizzard grinds food
    Clipping one wing stops flight
    Egg yolk takes a week to form
    Shell is 0.3mm thick
    Hen lays an egg every 25 hours
    No cockerel required
    "The key thing is demystifying what it is to keep chickens. They are easy to look after and children in particular love them."

    The eglu and run are billed as fox-proof but foxes are very active in this part of west London and I was convinced that I would return from work on my first day to find a mass of bloodied feathers blowing around the garden.

    Fortunately my ladies were still scratching contentedly in the lawn, but I do not yet subscribe to the theory that hens are stress relievers - I have slept rather badly since they arrived.

    On the third night, I was awoken by a fox howling at 2am and a noise which sounded not unlike paws on plastic. I leapt out of bed like Farmer Giles and if I had had a shotgun I would have grabbed it.

    The garden was quiet but the morning revealed two footprints on the eglu roof - the foxes have definitely noticed the chickens are there.

    "Tom, just go and pee in the garden to put the foxes off"
    Apparently one method of putting off predators is for the man of the house to pee around the garden - but I fear the foxes would not be the only ones to turn their noses up at this.

    A couple of days later the hens were still unmolested and I was still getting my morning telling-off from Tango so I decided to give them a run out in the garden.

    There was a lot of pecking and scratching in a newly-seeded flower bed, followed by digging a big hole in the lawn and then they settled down for a dust bath in the gravel path.

    Most of the time however they just wandered around together, eating plants and clucking affably.

    Hens don't make a lot of noise but smell is fairly high up on a would-be chicken-keeper's worry list. With city plots crammed together, the last thing you want to do is invade next door's patio with the delicate whiff of poultry-poop.

    Egg bribery

    At very close quarters, it has to be said, hens do pong a bit. But volunteers who spent months testing the prototype coops say neighbours can be placated by the other product to come out of a hen's rear end.

    "My neighbours were worried about smell and vermin," says Peta Brown, 50, from Brackley, Northamptonshire. "But they were won over once the eggs started coming. Sometimes I feel we are supplying the whole neighbourhood with eggs."


    A hen costs 3p per day to feed
    Produces average 6 eggs a week
    Six free range organic eggs cost £1.55
    Saving per egg: 22.5p
    Annual saving per hen: (£1.55x52)-(0.03x365)= £69.65
    And that's something I may have to embark on soon too. Tango and Cha Cha lay an egg apiece most days and wonderful though they are - with deep yellow yolks from all the grass they eat - they are starting to pile up.

    I must admit to feeling there is something of the tooth fairy about eggs appearing each day, as if by magic - which probably shows my life-long townie credentials.

    According to Johannes I am not alone. "People who keep chickens find that they are thinking about things that never really occurred to them before - about where their food comes from.

    "They begin to distrust food from a supermarket and they also do more baking because they have the eggs."

    Big Brother factor

    Francine Raymond, author of Keeping a Few Hens in Your Garden, agrees that concern over food has been a big factor in the recent boom in poultry-keeping but says there are also other influences at work.

    "Older people remember them from their childhood and there is a lot of nostalgia involved in the idea of retiring to the good life in the countryside," she says.

    Tango gets that stroppy glint in her eye
    "If I go into a garden where there aren't hens I feel there is something missing. It's two-dimensional - no colour, movement and drama."

    Others cite the influence of Channel 4's Big Brother, acquainting a new generation with the simple pleasures of keeping a few daft-as-brush chooks roaming around.

    Online bookseller Amazon UK has seen a 400% increase in sales across hen-keeping titles since 2000, something the company attributes to the reality TV show.

    But whatever the social psychology behind the poultry-keeping boom, a universal truth about chickens is they can't help but make you smile.

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Thursday, January 12, 2006

    Keeping Chickens at Home - VIDEO "Come and get it!"

    Keeping Chickens at Home - VIDEO "Come and get it!"

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Pictures of the large Henhouse.

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Pictures of the large Henhouse.

    Keeping chickens at home UK
    This is the larger 'shed' Henhouse. The shed was placed on stilts about 2' off the ground. The area underneath the shed remains very dry and with the sides blocked off, it is a great place for the chickens to have a dust bath or just to keep out of the rain and wind. Chickens like to have somewhere to hide for predators as well. We have a lot of buzzards around here, so the chickens like to feel safe if they see one and quickly run to cover under the shed if one is around. Ventilation is very important to keep the Henhouse fresh and free of smells. I removed one of the windows and put a larger vent in it's place. I also drilled large holes all around the edge of the shed, just under the roof edge. Chicken droppings give off ammonia so you need to keep air circulating to avoid a build up. You won't have any problems though by having just a couple of birds and changing the straw bedding often.

    Keeping chickens at home UK
    This is the hatch I made at the back of the shed. Simple hinged door. Give direct access to the nestboxes and the eggs (yum yum) without having to go through the front door all the time.

    Keeping chickens at home UK
    Here's the back of the shed and the hatch area again taken from further away so you can see the layout better.

    Keeping chickens at home UK
    The inside of the henhouse. The nestboxes are located lower than the perches and at the back of the house next to the hatch. All freshly bedded out with straw. A bale of straw costs about £2 and will last a small henhouse with 3 hens about 2-3 months, changing every 3-4 weeks.

    Keeping chickens at home UK
    Here's the front door and ramp area. The ramp doesn't need to be anywhere near as sturdy as that. I just had that bit of wood hanging around. Just make sure to have some horizontal slats for the them to get a grip on. Notice how the door has been slid up and locked in place with a nail. At night, the nail is simply removed and the door comes down and closes the birds in. You can actually buy automatic doors that open and close by themselves. They have light sensors on them and when it gets dark, the door automatically closes. When it gets light again in the morning, the door opens, letting the chickens out.

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Pictures of my Henhouses (and a Pig Ark!).

    Keeping Chickens at Home - Pictures of my Henhouses (and a Pig Ark).

    Keeping chickens at home UK

    This is a small Henhouse for about 3-4 chickens I built from a couple of front doors. It incorporates an enclosed run, which can be covered. I use this one to isolate hens when they are poorly or being a nuisance to other birds. The nesting/sleeping area has a separate door which can be closed at night for additional security and to make it snug!

    Keeping chickens at home UK

    Thought you might want to see the pig ark. Pork Chop was making a racket again. Always wants to be the centre of attention!

    Keeping chickens at home UK

    This is my largest Henhouse. It's a old 6' x 4' shed. I put in a front door hatch, back door to get eggs and perches inside. It holds 20 chickens comfortably. I'll put some additional interior/exterior pictures of this one in the next post.

    Keeping chickens at home UK

    This is my small Duck house. Not being used at the moment. Apart from the chickens who like to have a nose every now and again. Occasionally, they get lazy and leave the odd egg in there for me!

    Keeping chickens at home UK

    This is another Henhouse I made from 5 front doors, with windows! The whole back opens up for egg collection and easy cleaning. The only trouble with this house is that it weighs an absolute ton!. All the houses are raised off the ground. This one is on several wooden posts. I also use them to roll the henhouse around the chicken area, moving one post from the back to the front as I progress across the field.

    More pictures of Henhouses on the next post.

    Keeping Chickens at Home

    Wednesday, January 11, 2006

    Keeping Chickens at Home- What shall I keep them in?

    Keeping Chickens at Home - What shall I keep them in?

    keeping chickens at home UK

    The skys the limit here.

    Because my chickens are kept on a smallholding and I have quite a lot of them, I tend to opt for simplicity and functionality when I design and build my chicken houses.

    But, most people, like yourself, are just thinking of keeping chickens in their back garden for a hobby and some fresh eggs. So, I think, you can afford to be a little more creative as you want it to look nice in your garden.

    The simplest thing in the World is to adapt an old shed. The cheapest way to have a new chicken house is to build a wooden box about 1 metre square using outdoor plywood. The roof needs to be sloping a little to let the rain come off. The roof needs to covered in some waterproof material such as plastic or roof felt and it should overlap the base all the way around by a good 3-4 inches. The front and the back needs to be hinged so you can open it for collecting eggs and for cleaning.

    Chickens roost at night. That is they like to sit off the ground when they go to sleep at night. It harks back to when chickens were wild and slept in the trees at night to avoid predators. All you need is a length of 2"x1" fitted across the house about 15 inches off the floor. The edges of the wood for the perch needs to be smoothed off. Place the perches in the middle of the chicken house. Allow one perch (1metre) for about 3-4 chickens.

    Chickens must have somewhere dark and snug to lay their eggs. To build a nest box for your chickens is very simple. Build another box roughly 12"x12"x20"high, again with a sloping roof to stop the chickens trying to roost on it and then forget to put a front and a back on it. Instead, put a piece of wood about 3" high on the bottom. With the front open, the chicken can easily pop in and out and with the back open, you can easily get at the eggs. Check out the picture in the next post of one I made earlier in true Blue Peter fashion as a guide. Make sure the nest box is always placed lower than the perches in the house as chickens will always try to roost on the highest point in their house. Place the nesting box at the back of the house, so you can easily collect the eggs when you open the back of the chicken house in the morning. Put some fresh straw in it and you're ready to go.

    The chicken house needs to off the floor by a couple of feet. Use some bricks or blocks. It protects the house from damp and discourages mice and rats from nesting underneath. The floor of the chicken house needs to have a good layer of fresh straw over it. This should be cleaned out and replaced every couple of weeks. The used stuff makes great compost. Don't waste it! Keeping chickens can have additional benefits such as great vegetables and roses!!

    The front of the house needs a doorway. Simply cut an arch shape about 12" high and 8" wide at the bottom in the centre. Then you need to make a door slightly wider (13"x9") so the chickens can locked up at night for protection against predators. The picture shows the sliding door method I normally use. A nail keeps the door up and out of the way during the day. At night I pull it out and the door slides down to cover the hole. There's no reason why you couldn't use hinges and a simple hook lock like a regular door. I just find this way easy to build. There's a picture of the door in the next post.

    The last thing you will need is a ramp for the chickens to get in and out of their new house. Don't make it too steep and put some steps on the ramp to stop them slipping. Have a look at the picture in the next post to see what mine looks like.

    Of course you could avoid all this hassle (I actually enjoy building the houses. It's all part of keeping chickens for me) by buying a chicken house. There are the classic wooden chickens arks to the fashionable and funky brightly coloured eglus!! (Omlet, the company who make the Eglu offer a complete keeping chickens package including the house, the run, feeders and drinkers, feed and a couple of organic chickens. Bit pricey, but a great package for a nervous beginner. In the right border are links to all these types of chicken houses and plans to make your own 'chicken castle'. Check them all out and see what takes your fancy. Buying chicken houses is a lot more expensive than making them of course, but that's always the way with everything isn't it?

    I'll put a bunch of pictures of my Henhouses in the next post.

    Keeping Chickens at Home - What shall I keep them in?

    Tuesday, January 03, 2006

    Keeping Chickens at Home - The latest on Avian Bird Flu.

    Keeping Chickens at Home - The latest on Avian Bird Flu

    I was contacted before Xmas by my local authority who informed me that all smallholders/ farmers etc who keep more than 50 birds of any type (chickens, ducks, geese, pheasants etc) must register with DEFRA (the Government Agricultural Department).

    I rang the 'Bird Registry' department to inform them that I do not keep more than 50 birds. The person I spoke to informed me that in March of this year, everyone who keeps any number of birds will have to register. Now, I keep pigs as well as keeping chickens at home, so I have a DEFRA smallholding number in order to take pigs to the abattoir and I get sent all the notices. How on earth a postman from Kent who keeps three hens in his back garden is going to know he has to register in March is beyond me. But we will wait and see.

    If you would like to know the latest developments on Avian Bird Flu in the UK, then go to:

    Don't let them scare you too much! Even if Bird Flu comes to the UK, it just means your chickens will have to be keep inside until the problem is sorted out. As long as the chicken's run has a solid roof and is covered with netting to avoid contact with wild birds, everything should be fine.

    Keeping chickens at home.

    Keeping Chickens at Home - What do I feed my chickens?

    Keeping Chickens at Home- What shall I keep them in?

    Keeping chickens at home UK
    Happy New Year everyone! Hope you've had a good one. In the picture above, my Black Rock hens have come over to the ducks feeder to see if they can get any corn that's been left or is floating on the water. I have to put the ducks corn in a container of water to stop the hens eating it first. Ducks don't mind eating their food under water, thank goodness.

    Spent Xmas with my Wife's parents in Birmingham and had New Year with the family back in Plymouth. Had a great time. I'm all ready for the new year.

    The dreaded spectre of Asian Bird Flu is hanging over us all and I'm going to be addressing that subject in my next post. But for today, let us look at feeding the chickens you have selected from all the different breeds we mentioned before.

    During spring and summer, when the grass is growing well, chickens can get up to a quarter of their food and all their protein from it. That is assuming they are on grass in the first place. The sun will provide their vitamin D (just like us!). They'll also scratch around for extra titbits if they able.

    But during Winter, when the grass has no goodness to speak off, you need to provide them with alternatives such as cabbage or any greens. My chickens also love apples and bread. Make sure these are occasional treats and only feed them such things after they have had their pellets or corn. Otherwise, they will get full up on them and egg production will suffer.

    Let your chickens run around the garden by all means, but make sure they can not get into your neighbours garden as they will ruin any flowerbed. They can then lodge a complaint with the council and you are liable for putting right any damage caused. So do think carefully about going totally free range in the garden. Keeping chickens at home is great fun, but don't let it ruin your relationship with your neighbours.

    But the majority of their food will come from either Layers Pellets or Poultry Corn. Both come in either 20 or 25kg bags. If you had six chickens, this would last you about one month.

    Layers Pellets are a 'complete' food. They contain all the vitamins and minerals required to keep a chicken well and laying. A word of warning here. Regular pellets contain chemical additives. I personally try to keep my chickens as close as I possibly can to the Organic standards. Organic Layers Pellets are about twice as much as regular pellets.

    Be sure not to buy Breeders Pellets by mistake as these can contain antibiotics and growth hormones to fatten the birds quickly. Horrible stuff!

    Poultry Corn is a mixture of maize and grain. To be honest, this is what the chickens prefer. They will always eat corn over pellets any day. However, I find the number of eggs you get reduces when more corn is consumed. I personally mix layers pellets and poultry corn 50/50.

    Whatever feed you use, you will need to put it in something. A plastic 3kg Feed hopper will cost you about £7 and will be more than big enough for six hens. A Plastic 10litre drinker will cost about the same.

    To have a look at all the different feeders/drinkers and othepoultryry keeping paraphernalia, go to Ascott Smallholding Supplies at They have a wide range of products available online.

    Both layers pellets anpoultryry corn come in plastic bags and are an open invitation to mice and rats. They will chew through it in no time and help themselves. Buy yourself a metal dustbin and keep all your feed in that. I've yet to see them chew through steel!

    Prices for pellets and corn will vary from supplier to supplier. Smaller family run outfits are normally more expensive than the larger outlets. But they can be much more convenient! At the time of writing this, my local family run agricultural merchants were selling 20kg organic layers pellets for £8.25, 25kg regular layers pellets for £4.85 and 25kgs poultry corn for £5.25.

    I mix one bag of corn with one bag of pellets.

    Chickens also require calcium. Egg shells don't make themselves! Leftover milk is a good source. My hens prefer a bit of brcerealst ceral left in it! The best thing to use is ground oyster shell. Your local agricultural suppliers will stock it. Just keep a small container in their run and they will help themselves when they want it.

    The other thing that chickens need is some grit. Hens do not have any teeth, so they grind down their food by keeping some grit in their gizzard. The grit bashes against the grain or pellets in the gizzard breaking it down ready for digesting. If your birds have run of the garden, then they will probably find enough tiny stones to eat. Otherwispoultry 'poutry grit' from the same place you buy your feed and leave in a small container in their run like the ground oyster shell for them to help themselves.

    The only other thing they need is fresh clean water. I change the water every day. Every week, I clean the feeders and drinkers, sterilising them with boiling water from the kettle.

    Look for your local agricultural merchants either in the yellow pages or have a look here: Ring them up and check out feed prices in your area.

    Keeping chickens at home.